Analía Bellizzi – Chemistry Classes

Ronald Reagan Senior High School

TOPIC I: Scientific Thinking/Graphical Methods

ROBOTO
  • Apply and analyze the process of science.
  • Investigate daily activities that involve important areas within Physics.
  • Discuss and analyze how physical quantities consist of a numerical value and a unit
  • Investigate how to use appropriate tools and techniques in measurements (length, volume, mass, time interval, temperature)
  • Discuss the level of precision of measurements.
  • Develop skills of how treat units as algebraic quantities that can cancel each other.
  • Describe the function of models in science and identify the wide range of models used in science.
  • Use dimensional analysis to check the validity of physics equations.
  • Interpret data in tables and graphs, recognize equations that summarize data
  • Linearize data and use best fit lines to create mathematical models
  • Apply concepts to use observations and exploratory activities to identify variables and to develop problem statements.
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    A. Reviewing the Scientific Process:

    1. Steps during Investigations: The scientific process typically involves several key steps:

      • Observation: Identifying a phenomenon or problem to investigate.
      • Hypothesis Formation: Proposing a tentative explanation based on prior knowledge or intuition.
      • Prediction: Deductively reasoning what outcomes would be expected if the hypothesis is true.
      • Experimentation: Designing and conducting experiments to test the hypothesis.
      • Data Collection: Gathering empirical evidence through measurements or observations.
      • Analysis: Examining and interpreting the data to draw conclusions.
      • Conclusion: Determining whether the evidence supports or refutes the hypothesis, and potentially revising the hypothesis based on the results.
      • Communication: Sharing findings through reports, presentations, or publications.
    2. Reporting Investigations: Communicating the results of investigations is crucial for scientific progress. This can be done through various methods, such as:

      • Lab Reports: Formal documents detailing the purpose, methods, results, and conclusions of an experiment, often following a specific format like APA or MLA.
      • Presentations: Oral or visual presentations summarizing the key aspects of the investigation, often accompanied by slides or posters.
      • Publications: Sharing findings in scientific journals, which undergo peer review for validity and significance.
      • Online Platforms: Utilizing websites, blogs, or social media to disseminate findings to broader audiences.

    B. Developing the Modeling Cycle through Lab Activities:

    1. Experimental Design: Planning and structuring experiments to test hypotheses effectively, including considerations such as variables, controls, and procedures.
    2. Data Collection: Gathering empirical data through measurements, observations, or simulations, ensuring accuracy and reliability.
    3. Graphical Analysis: Representing data visually through graphs or charts to identify patterns, trends, or relationships between variables, aiding in interpretation and hypothesis testing.

    C. Using Linearization to Develop Relationships:

    1. Equation of a Line: In the context of linearization, expressing a relationship between variables y and x as y = mx + b” where mm represents the slope and bb represents the y-intercept.
    2. Meaning of Slope: The slope of a line represents the rate of change of the dependent variable (yy) with respect to the independent variable (xx). In scientific contexts, the slope often has physical significance, such as representing a constant or a proportionality factor in a linear relationship between physical quantities.

    D. Using Dimensional Analysis to Give Meaning to Physical Quantities:

    1. Dimension of a Physical Quantity: Every physical quantity can be expressed in terms of fundamental dimensions such as length (LL), mass (MM), and time (TT). Dimensional analysis involves identifying and expressing the dimensions of quantities using these fundamental dimensions.
    2. Dimensional Consistency: Ensuring that the dimensions of quantities on both sides of an equation are consistent. This principle is essential for verifying the validity of equations and predicting the behavior of physical systems.